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Glossary

Glossary

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3G

Third generation of mobile systems. Provide high-speed data transmissions and higher supporting multimedia applications such as full-motion video, video conferencing and Internet access. See “UMTS”.

A

Access Channel

The network element used to connect a subscriber to the nearest switch or concentrator. An access channel generally takes the form of a closed circuit and consists of a pair of copper wires, but may also employ fiber optic cables, microwave links or other technologies.

ACD (Automatic Call Distribution)

A specialized phone system for handling incoming calls which recognizes and answers calls according to instructions from a database and then routes the calls to an operator or agent.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

A technology for transferring data that uses an access channel to provide faster network access to the Internet and other popular multimedia and data services at speeds of up to two to six Mbps, a transfer speed 50 times faster than narrowband or dial-up Internet access.

ARPL (Average Revenue Per Line)

Measures the average monthly revenue generated for each line. The method used to calculate this measure may differ among operators.

ARPU (Average Revenue Per User)

Measures the average monthly revenue generated for each customer unit, such as a mobile phone.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

A multiplexing and routing technology for high-speed digital communications that permits data, text, voice, video and multimedia signals to be transmitted simultaneously between network access points at speeds of up to 155 Mbps or more. ATM allows for better local area network interconnections, PABX interconnection, data transmission and flexible bandwidth delivery.

B

Base Station

Fixed transceiver equipment in each cell of a mobile telecommunications network that communicates by radio signal with mobile handsets in that cell.

Bit

The smallest unit of binary data.

Bitstream Access

Access to Türk Telekom equipment connecting a provider to the end user to provide high-speed access services. This form of access differs from wholesale in that, in terms of transmission capacity, it provides access at a binary rate and the operator, as the access provider, decides on the technical specifications for the equipment directly connected to the access channel, as well as on the interface offered at the end-user side.

BPS (Bits Per Second)

A data transmission rate

Broadband Service

A communications service for content requiring high-speed transmission rates such as video transmission.

C

Call Forwarding

A feature permitting the user to program a phone to ring at an alternate location; call forwarding may be in effect at all times or only in certain designated instances, such as when a particular phone is busy or there is no answer.

Call Waiting

A warning signal received when a person is on a call that there is a second incoming call.

Carrier Pre-Selection

A mechanism that allows customers to select competing operators as that user’s default operator without dialing additional codes on the telephone. The customer subscribes to the services of a competing operator and his calls are routed through such operator.

Centrex

An enhanced phone service offered by public exchanges that delivers PBX switchboard-like functions to groups of users without the need for a private exchange within an organization or other group of users.

Churn

A measure of customer turnover due to subscription disconnections as a result of terminations by customers; switching by customers to competing services; terminations by the service provider due to customer non-payment; and, in the case of mobile communications services, expirations of pre-paid cards.

CLIP (Call Line Identification Presentation)

A code that is sent over phone lines in certain locations when a person makes a phone call. This code includes the phone number of the person making the call. Certain modems are able to understand this code, and inform the customer of the identity of the person who is calling before the customer answers the phone.

CLIR

Caller Line Identity Restriction

Co-Location

The physical or virtual placement of competitors’ equipment within the facilities of Türk Telekom for purposes of providing telecommunications services to end users, such as interconnection and unbundling.

CPI

Consumer Price Index

CTI (Computer Telephony Integration)

A system that enables a computer to act as a call center, accepting incoming calls and routing them to the appropriate destination.

D

Digital

A method of storing, processing and transmitting information through the use of distinct electronic or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. Digital transmission and switching technologies employ a sequence of these pulses to represent information as opposed to the continuously variable analog signal. Compared to analog networks, digital networks allow for greater capacity, lower interference, protection against eavesdropping and automatic error correction. Signals are encoded into digits for transmission.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

See “xDSL”.

DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer)

Equipment at a phone company’s central location that can be used to link many customer DSL connections to a single high-speed ATM line.

DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing)

A technique enabling several independent flows of digital information to co-exist on the same optical fiber.

E

EDGE

Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution.

Ethernet

A local area network allowing several computers to transfer data, typically over a coaxial cable.

Exchange

See “switch”.

F

Frame Relay

A data transport protocol that divides a physical communications line into several virtual channels. A technology part-way between X25 packet switching and ATM.

Frequency Band

A specified range of frequencies. Frequency refers to the number of times per second that a wave (e.g., electromagnetic wave) oscillates or swings back and forth in a complete cycle from its starting point to its end point.

G

GByte

A unit of binary data commonly used to measure data storage or transfer.

Gbps (Gigabits per second)

A data transmission rate. One Gbps equals one billion bps.

GMPCS (Global Mobile Personal Communications via Satellite)

A personal communication system providing transnational, regional or global coverage through satellites that are accessible by end users with small and easily transportable terminals.

G.SHDSL (Global Symmetric High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

Service that provides equal bandwidth for both uploads and downloads and transports data at a maximum bit rate of 2.3 mbits/s in both directions.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

A GSM-based packet-switched data transmission technology standard, established by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, in which base stations can be directly connected to the Internet, thus bypassing the switching systems typically used to connect mobile traffic to fixed networks. GPRS provides users of mobile communications services better data access capability with virtually instant and permanent connections, as well as speeds up to ten times higher than GSM.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)

A digital mobile telecommunications system standardized by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute based on digital transmission and cellular network architecture with roaming in use throughout Europe, Japan and in various other countries. GSM systems operate in the 900 MHz (GSM 900) and 1800 MHz (GSM 1800, also referred to as DCS 1800) frequency bands.

GSM 900 and GSM 1800

See “"GSM"”.

I

Interconnection

The linking of telecommunications networks used by the same or different persons in order to allow the users of the services or networks of one person to communicate with the users of the services or networks of the same person or of another person, or to access services provided by another person.

International Roaming

Provision of roaming services in the domestic market to subscribers of a competing operator’s network. See “roaming”.

Internet Access Line

The network element used to connect a subscriber to the nearest switch or concentrator. An access channel generally takes the form of a closed circuit and consists of a pair of copper wires, but may also employ fiber optic cables, microwave links or other technologies.

IP (Internet Protocol)

Protocol used in the Internet for communication among multiple networks.

IP-VPN (Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network)

A closed network of encrypted links accessible via Internet protocol

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

A transmission system with the capacity to transmit two streams of information (voice, text, data or graphics) simultaneously on a single access channel, based upon end-to-end digitalization and standardized out-of-band signaling.

ISDN-BA

Integrated Services Digital Network Basic Access, comprising two voice channels and one signaling channel.

ISDN-PA

Integrated Services Digital Network Primary Access, comprising 30 voice channels and one signaling channel.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

A company providing access to Internet and other computer based information networks through its servers.

IT (Information Technology)

The broad subject concerned with all aspects of managing and processing information, especially within a large organization or company.

ITI (Interactive Terminal Interface)

A protocol that allows for the transfer of binary files between terminals across an X.25 network.

IPTV

Internet Protocol television, a system in which digital television services are delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery via a broadband connection.

IVR (Interactive voice response)

A telecommunications system that uses a pre-recorded database of voice messages to present options to a user, typically over telephone lines.

K

Kbps (Kilobits Per Second)

A data transmission rate. One Kbps equals 2(10) bps.

L

LAN (Local Area Network)

A short distance data transmission network designed to interconnect personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, file servers and other computing devices within a localized environment, for the purpose of sharing files, programs and various devices such as printers and high-speed modems. LANs may have a decentralized communications management or include dedicated computers or file servers that provide a centralized source of shared files and programs.

Leased line

Voice and data circuits leased to connect two or more locations for the exclusive use of the subscriber.

Local Loop

See “access channel”.

M

MByte

A unit of computer data commonly used to measure data storage or transfer.

Mbps (Megabits Per Second)

A data transmission rate. One Mbps equals 2(20) bps.

MHz (Megahertz)

A measure of frequency. One MHz equals 1,000,000 cycles per second.

MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service)

A standard defined for use in advanced wireless terminals that allows users to send and receive messages containing various kinds of multimedia content, such as images, audio and video clips, with a “non-real-time” transmission.

MNP (Mobile Number Portability)

A service that allows customers to keep their mobile phone numbers when they change service providers.

MNS (Managed Network Services)

The management and provision of operational support for a network environment while the network hardware and associated assets remain on the client’s books.

MoU (Minutes of Use)

A measurement of customer activity. Average minutes of use per customer, usually presented on a monthly basis.

MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator)

A company that offers mobile services using another company’s network.

MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)

A standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage. MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address in order to forward the packet to the next node.

N

Narrowband

A channel that provides data transfer rates less than or equal to one voice-grade line. Contrast with broadband speeds of data transfer.

NGN (Next Generation Networks)

IP/MPLS protocol-based digital packet-switched network.

NMT 450

Nordic mobile telephone and one of the earliest first generation mobile networks that operated mostly in the 450 MHz band.

Node

A network element that provides a point at which key telecommunications equipment or computers can access the network. In circuit networks, nodes are switching systems. In packet-switched networks they are often computers.

O

On-Net

Calls that stay on an operator’s network or a customer private network from beginning to end.

P

Packet switching

A data transmission process, utilizing addressed packets, whereby a channel is occupied only for the duration of transmission of the packet.

PMR (Private Mobile Radio)/PAMR (Public Access Mobile Radio)

A commercial service using trunking techniques in which multiple groups of users can set up their own closed systems within a shared public network.

PC (Personal Computer)

A small digital computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time.

Penetration Rate

The total number of subscribers for a carrier divided by the population that it serves expressed as a percentage.

Point-to-Point

A link from one user or network to another using a phone line.

PoP (Point of Presence)

A site where there exists a collection of telecommunications equipment, usually modems, digital leased lines and multi-protocol routers.

Pulses

A unit of measurement of billing intervals

Push-To-Talk

Mobile phone technology that allows a mobile phone to be used for real-time one-to-one and one-to-many voice communication, typically requiring the speaker to push a button on the handset to be heard and to release the button to listen.

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)

The international telephone system based on copper wires carrying analog voice data. This is in contrast to newer telephone networks based on digital technologies, such as ISDN.

PTT

The PTT is the General Directorate of Postal Telegraph and Telephone. Türk Telekom operated as part of the PTT from 1924 to 1995, when it was separated from the PTT and incorporated as a joint stock company under the Undersecretary of the Treasury.

R

Registered line

Registered line refers to a line with a valid and effective subscription agreement between the operator and the customer.

Ringback

When the customer gets a busy tone when calling a number, the caller is invited to punch R5. Once the called party’s line is free, the service will call back the customer and will connect them.

RLLO

Türk Telekom’s reference local loop offer. Türk Telekom is required by the Local Loop Unbundling Communiqué enacted on 1 July 2005 to publish a reference offer for access to its local loop. The reference local loop offer must be approved by the Telecommunications Authority every year. Türk Telekom submitted its RLLO for approval on 29 September 2005.

Roaming

The mobile telecommunications feature that permits subscribers of one network to use their mobile handsets and telephone numbers when in a region covered by another operator’s network.

Router

An inter-network device that relays data packets to networks connected to the router based upon the destination address contained in those data packets being routed.

S

SCT (Special Communications Tax)

A tax imposed on all mobile communications services in Turkey to fund public works in the aftermath of the 1999 earthquake in Turkey’s Marmara region. The tax was originally applicable through the end of 2000, but has been extended twice and on 1 January 2004 was made permanent when Law 5035 was enacted. The tax is paid by mobile customers and collected by mobile operators.

SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)

The European standard for high-speed digital transmission using fiber optic cables.

SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)

An electronic card inserted into a GSM phone that identifies the user account to the network, handles authentication and provides data storage for user data such as phone numbers and network information. It may also contain applications that run on the phone.

SLA (Service Level Agreement)

A contract between a network service provider and a customer that specifies, usually in measurable terms, what services, and in certain cases, the quality of such services that the network service provider will furnish.

SMS (Short Message Service)

A mobile communications system that allows users to send and receive alpha-numeric messages of up to 160 characters from one mobile handset to another via a short message service center.

SOHO

Small Office/Home Office.

Switch

A device used to set up and route telephone calls either to the number called or to the next switch along the path. They may also record information for billing and control purposes.

T

termination rate

The interconnection fee received by an operator for incoming calls terminating on its network.

U

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)

The third-generation broadband mobile communications standard. UMTS utilizes Code Division Multiple Access, or CDMA, technology and has the speed and capacity to handle multimedia transmissions. A UMTS system offers mobile telephony, messaging services, wireless access to the Internet and other multi-media services at higher speeds than GSM systems.

USO (Universal Service Obligation)

The obligation placed on Türk Telekom by the Universal Service Law enacted on 16 June 2005 to ensure that standard telephone services, payphones and prescribed carriage services are reasonably accessible to all people in a particular region on an equitable basis, and with affordable pricing, wherever they reside or carry on business.

V

Voicemail

Any system for sending, storing and retrieving audio messages, similar to a telephone answering machine.

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol, in which voice traffic is carried over Internet Protocol rather than a circuit-switched network.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

A data network that shares telecommunications infrastructure but acts as a secure private network, with an architecture based on the use of the TCP-IP (Time Compression Multiplexing—Internet Protocol).

W

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

A global open specification that supports Internet Protocols on wireless devices, such as mobile phones, two-way radios, smart phones and communicators, to easily access and interact with Internet-based services. With WAP, a mobile phone user can view mini-pages and interact with a small, multiple choice screen.

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)

The generic term used to refer to any type of IEEE 802.11 radio frequency network, in which signals are sent over radio frequencies or infrared using wireless network cards and hubs to provide wireless network access.

WiMax (World Interoperability for Microwave Access)

The successor to Wi-Fi. The generic term used to refer to any type of IEEE 802.16 radio frequency network, with a range of up to 80km and a bandwidth of up to 75bps.

WLAN

A wireless network connecting two or more computers or other devices over a short distance, such as within an office, a home or a hot spot. Wi-Fi and its successor, WiMax, are examples of WLANs.

X

X25

A worldwide protocol for communications services using packet-switched networks.

xDSL

Refers collectively to all types of digital subscriber lines, the two main categories being ADSL and SDSL. Two other types of xDSL technologies are High-data-rate DSL (HDSL) and Very high DSL (VDSL). DSL technologies use sophisticated modulation schemes to pack data onto copper wires. They are sometimes referred to as “last-mile technologies” because they are used only for connections from a telephone switching station to a home or office, not between switching stations.

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